Reconstruction Period in Beaufort County

Resources available with your Beaufort County Library card

This list of selective materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC). Latest update: 21 August 2018

After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Ends of War

Gregory P. Downs

After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Ends of War by Gregory P. Downs posits that the final end to slavery was “born in the face of bayonets” –that is, the 1865 - 1871 occupation of the South by US Army troops protected the freedmen’s participation in the democratic process for those years. Once the troops left, the civil rights of the former enslaved people were systematically undermined by political powers at the state and local levels of government.

 

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After Lincoln : How the North Won the Civil War and Lost the Peace

A.J. Langguth

A brilliant evocation of the post-Civil War era by the acclaimed author of Patriots and Union 1812. After Lincoln tells the story of the Reconstruction, which set back black Americans and isolated the South for a century.

 

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After Slavery : the Negro in South Carolina During Reconstruction, 1861-1877

Joel Williamson

After Slavery was a “revolutionary reinterpretation of the Negro during Reconstruction” from a sympathetic and learned scholar who placed the economic, social, religious, educational and political experiences of South Carolina African Americans during the triumphant and tragic years of Reconstruction within the national context of Gilded Age misconduct, malfeasance, and corruption.

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Andrew Johnson: A Biography

Hans L. Trefousse

Reconsiders the personality and the presidency of the only president to have been impeached, finding his failures due largely to an outdated, mythical view of America.

 

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At Freedom's Door : African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina

Edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. ; introduction by Eric Foner

This work seeks to rescue from obscurity the identities and contributions of black leaders who helped to rebuild South Carolina after the Civil War. It demonstrates the legal acumen displayed by prominent African Americans and their impact on the enactment of substantial constitutional reforms.

 

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Beaufort County Library's "Connections" Blog

From the Library's special local history & archives department, the Beaufort District Collection

Focusing on local history, Gullah culture, genealogy, natural history,and archaeology of lowcountry South Carolina's historic Beaufort, Hampton and Jasper counties.

 

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Beaufort Tricentennial Lecture Series: Sea Island Cotton Kingdom; The Idea of a Southern Nation

Part 2, February 13, 2009 : Dr. Larry Rowland; Dr. John McCardell, Jr.

Discusses the cotton gin, cotton fiber, indigo, William Barnwell Rhett and secession, Constitutional liberties, national characteristics, Beaufort College, Robert W. Barnwell, Library history; Education, William Elliott, and many "firsts" that are credited to this area. Beaufort was founded January 17, 1711.

 

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Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery

Leon F. Litwack

Researches the character of slavery, new freedom and racial relationships on both blacks and whites of the Reconstruction period. Pulitzer Prize, History, 1980.

 

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Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy

Stephen Kantrowitz

This book traces the history of white male supremacy and its discontents from the era of plantation slavery to the age of Jim Crow. Friend and foe alike and generations of historians interpreted Tillman's physical and rhetorical violence in defense of white supremacy as a matter of racial and gender instinct. This book reveals that Tillman's white supremacy was a political program and social argument whose legacies continue to shape American life.

 

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Black over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina During Reconstruction

Thomas Holt

In this prize-winning book Thomas Holt is concerned not only with the identities of the black politicians who gained power in South Carolina during Reconstruction, but also with the question of how they functioned within the political system. Thus, as one reviewer has commented, "he penetrates the superficial preoccupations over whether black politicians were venal or gullible to see whether they wielded power and influence and, if they did, how and to what ends and against what obstacles.

 

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Black Reconstruction in America

W. E. B. Du Bois

W. E. B. Du Bois was a public intellectual, sociologist, and activist on behalf of the African American community. He profoundly shaped black political culture in the United States through his founding role in the NAACP, as well as internationally through the Pan-African movement. Du Bois's sociological and historical research on African-American communities and culture broke ground in many areas, including the history of the post-Civil War Reconstruction period. Du Bois was also a prolific author of novels, autobiographical accounts, innumerable editorials and journalistic pieces, and several works of history. Black Reconstruction in America tells and interprets the story of the twenty years of Reconstruction from the point of view of newly liberated African Americans. Though lambasted by critics at the time of its publication in 1935, Black Reconstruction has only grown in historical and literary importance. In the 1960s it joined the canon of the most influential revisionist historical works. Its greatest achievement is weaving a credible, lyrical historical narrative of the hostile and politically fraught years of 1860-1880 with a powerful critical analysis of the harmful effects of democracy, including Jim Crow laws and other injustices. With a series introduction by editor Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and an introduction by David Levering Lewis, this edition is essential for anyone interested in African American history.

 

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Black Voices from Reconstruction, 1865-1877

John David Smith

Original source documents are woven into a narrative providing the experiences and points of view of former slaves during the long process of Reconstruction following the Civil War.

 

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Bloody Shirt: Terror after Appomattox

Stephen Budiansky

A narrative account of Reconstruction-era violence documents vigilante attacks on African Americans and their white allies, in an analysis that traces the period through the careers of two Union officers, a Confederate general, a northern entrepreneur, and a former slave.

 

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But There Was No Peace : The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction

George C. Rable

Preface to the new edition -- American violence, Southern violence, and Reconstruction -- The Specter of Saint-Domingue -- The Memphis race riot -- New Orleans and the emergence of political violence -- Military reconstruction: the triumph of Jacobinism -- The origins of the Counterrevolution -- The search for a strategy -- Counterrevolution aborted: Louisiana, 1871-1875 -- Counterrevolution triumphant: Mississippi, 1873-1876 -- 1876: The triumph of reaction -- Epilogue: On the inevitability of tragedy.

 

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Capitol Men : The Epic Story of Reconstruction Through the Lives of the First Black Congressmen

Philip Dray

Pulitzer Prize finalist Philip Dray shines a light on a little known group of men: the nation's first black members of Congress. These men played a critical role in pushing for much-needed reforms in the wake of a traumatic civil war, including public education for all children, equal rights, and protection from Klan violence. But they have been either neglected or maligned by most historians--their "glorious failure" chalked up to corruption and "ill-preparedness."

 

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Census Records

bdcbcl: Lists and Links of Selected Local History Materials from the Beaufort District Collection (SC)

Information compiled by the Library's Beaufort District Collection:

 

  • 1890 Federal Census of Union Veterans and Widows - Available in all branch libraries through Ancestry Library Edition database or on microfilm (BDC, HHI).

  • 1790 – 1880, 1900 – 1930 Federal Census for Beaufort County - Available in all branch libraries through Ancestry Library Edition database or on microfilm (BDC, HHI).

  • 1870, 1880, 1900-1930 Federal Census for Hampton County - Available in all branch libraries through Ancestry Library Edition database or on microfilm (BDC, HHI).

  • 1910-1930 Federal Census for Jasper County. - Available in all branch libraries through Ancestry Library Edition database or on microfilm (BDC, HHI).

Charlotte Forten, 1837 – 1914: A List of Selected Materials & Links

From the Library's special local history & archives department, the Beaufort District Collection

Lists and Links of Selected Local History Materials from the Beaufort District Collection (SC). This list of selective materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC). 

 

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The Civil War and Reconstruction

Ray B. Browne and Lawrence A. Kreiser, Jr.

The Civil War tore America apart. The ensuing era of Reconstruction sewed it back together. In this vivid look at the popular culture of the era, Browne and Kreiser examine how Americans coped with the trials and tribulations of this cataclysmic period.

 

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Civil War and Reconstruction Era Stereoscope Photographs of the Port Royal Region

Digital Collections from the Beaufort District Collection, Beaufort County Library hosted by the Lowcountry Digital Library

This collection of 106 Civil War period photographic stereopticon cards of the Beaufort area, St. Augustine, Florida, and Charleston are primarily from the Samuel A. Cooley studio. There are a number of scenes depicting the homes and life of the freedmen, a rarity.

 

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Civil War and Reconstruction Eras

Tracey Baptiste

The Civil War tore America apart. The ensuing era of Reconstruction sewed it back together. In this vivid look at the popular culture of the era, Browne and Kreiser examine how Americans coped with the trials and tribulations of this cataclysmic period.

 

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The Conservative Regime : South Carolina, 1877-1890

William J. Cooper, Jr.

First published in 1968, this is an investigation of the way in which South Carolinians redefined their state in the wake of the Civil War and Reconstruction. In this detailed revisionist study, William J. Cooper, Jr. focuses on the Conservative government of the state of SouthCarolina and challenges many of the commonly held views about the period, including some expressed by C. Vann Woodward in his influential book Origins Of The New South. Cooper provides a thorough analysis of the general political methods and policies of the ideology.

 

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Declarations of Dependence: The Long Reconstruction of Popular Politics in the South, 1861-1908

Gregory Downs

In this highly original study, Gregory Downs argues that the most American of wars, the Civil War, created a seemingly un-American popular politics, rooted not in independence but in voluntary claims of dependence. Through an examination of the pleas and petitions of ordinary North Carolinians, Declarations of Dependence contends that the Civil War redirected, not destroyed, claims of dependence by exposing North Carolinians to the expansive but unsystematic power of Union and Confederate governments, and by loosening the legal ties that bound them to husbands, fathers, and masters.Faced with anarchy during the long reconstruction of government authority, people turned fervently to the government for protection and sustenance, pleading in fantastic, intimate ways for attention. This personalistic, or what Downs calls patronal, politics allowed for appeals from subordinate groups like freed blacks and poor whites, and also bound people emotionally to newly expanding postwar states. Downs's argument rewrites the history of the relationship between Americans and their governments, showing the deep roots of dependence, the complex impact of the Civil War upon popular politics, and the powerful role of Progressivism and segregation in submerging a politics of dependence that--in new form--rose again in the New Deal and persists today.

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The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877

Kenneth Stampp

Stampp's classic work offers a revisionist explanation for the radical failure to achieve equality for blacks, and of the effect that Conservative rule had on the subsequent development of the South. Refuting former schools of thought, Stampp challenges the notions that slavery was somehow just a benign aspect of Southern culture, and how the failures during the reconstruction period created a ripple effect that is still seen today.

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Eunice : A Tale of Reconstruction Times in South Carolina : A Novel

William James Rivers

Noted 19th-century South Carolina historian and novelist, James Williams Rivers penned this lost tale of the Reconstruction era years before the Lost Cause romance became a genre all its own. Published here for the first time, Eunice combines the historical treasure trove of the author's eyewitness accounts of the Civil War and Reconstruction with his literary plot about a Southern woman choosing love over conventional expectations. Eunice opens with the burning of Columbia on February 17, 1865, as drawn from Rivers's own firsthand experience of the event. Wade Hampton and his Red Shirts, the Ku Klux Klan, African Americans, and carpetbaggers (corrupt and honourable alike) inhabit River's fictional world. The novel centers on Eunice DeLesline, a Southern belle impoverished by the war and faced with divergent visions of Southern masculinity. Competing for her hand are Willie Barton, a son of the Old South, and Colonel Loyle, a self-made Confederate captain. A carpetbagger's plot to kidnap Eunice drives the action and presents Rivers with ample opportunity to voice his opinions on race, gender, and power in this transitional period in American history. what kind of Southerner might best lead the region. Eunice sides with her heart and invites a new era of prosperity. In using historical episodes as a framework for his story, Rivers adopts the technique of another South Carolina novelist and historian, William Gilmore Simms. Like his fellow Reconstruction novelists John W. De Forest, Albion Tourgee, and Charles E. Craddock (Mary Murphree), Rivers uses fiction as a means to explore how the nation would or would not reunite following the war. However, he takes a more pointed approach than others in defining what kind of leadership would best serve the postbellum South. Tara Courtney McKinney's introduction sets the story in its proper cultural context and provides valuable biographical information on an important, though overlooked, Southern writer.

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Extracts from letters of teachers and superintendents of the New-England Educational Commission for Freedmen

4th series, 1864. SC 306.3621 EXT

The Facts of Reconstruction

John Roy Lynch

The Facts of Reconstruction is John Roy Lynch's fascinating and detailed account of the USA's political situation following the conclusion of the American Civil War. As a Speaker in the Mississippi House of Representatives, John R. Lynch was one of the first-ever black politicians. As such, the victory of the Union forces in 1865 directly influenced his life and career. Simply by virtue of emancipation, Lynch was a major stakeholder in the reconstruction efforts between the Union north and the secessionist south. He consequently felt obliged to author this retrospective history covering the major political events and turning points. Immediately after the American Civil War concluded, the USA was in a fractured and fraught state. The assassination of Abraham Lincoln, who sought to mend bridges and reconcile with the secessionist states, exacerbated the situation further. The 1860s, 1870s and 1880s were thus a tumultuous time for American politics, in which reforms were hard fought and incremental in the various states and nationally at the federal level. Writing in 1913, Lynch charts the journey made over those difficult decades, drawing on his personal experience as a member of Mississippi's House of Representatives, and the national record. He charts the various elections, and the evolution of the Republican and Democratic parties as distinct wings of the political landscape. Various events, such as the rise of Democratic radicalism in the South, and the election of Grover Cleveland to the Presidency, are detailed. In all, "The Facts of Reconstruction" offers a reasonable overview of a transitional period in U.S. politics from an insider. The ongoing racial conflicts following the emancipation of African American slaves are charted alongside the personal traits, ideals and acts of the various politicians of the time.

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First Days Amongst the Contrabands: Diaries and Personal Accounts

Elizabeth Hyde Botume

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Diaries and Personal Accounts

Digitized by the Internet Archive

Publication date 1893

Topics Reconstruction -- South Carolina. Freedmen -- South Carolina.

Publisher Boston : Lee and Shepard

Collection westvirginiawesleyan; americana

Digitizing sponsor Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

Contributor West Virginia Wesleyan College, Annie Merner Pfeiffer Library

From the Collection of Charles Aubrey Jones

 

The Freedmen's Bureau, Politics, and Stability Operations During Reconstruction in the South

William Burks

The United States' Civil War ended in 1865. However, the post-conflict period immediately following, known as Reconstruction, lasted another 12 years. This era provides a great case study for examining the impacts of politics on military stability operations. This thesis focuses on the Freedmen's Bureau during its existence from 1865 to 1872. Envisioned as the lead organization for integrating former slaves into American society, the Bureau's efforts in the post-Civil War South were undermined by a hostile political situation at the national and state levels and a diminishing lack of popular support throughout the nation to embrace radical social change. The Bureau's operational time frame splits into three distinct periods: conflict with President Andrew Johnson from 1865 to early 1867, revamped efforts during Congressional Reconstruction from early 1867 to the end of 1868, and a reduced operational focus (primarily education) from 1869 to 1872. The Bureau faced manning challenges and fought racism as it worked to help former slaves become self-sufficient, educated, and true citizens of the nation in which they resided. Unfortunately, hostile political conditions meant much of the civil rights work accomplished by the Bureau was subdued after its demise until the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.

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Freedom's Lawmakers : A Directory of Black Officeholders During Reconstruction

Eric Foner

With Freedom's Lawmakers, Eric Foner has assembled the first comprehensive directory of the over 1,500 African Americans who held political office in the South during the Reconstruction era. He has compiled an impressive amount of information about the antebellum status, occupations, property ownership, and military service of these officials - who range from U.S. congressmen to local justices of the peace and constables. This revised paperback edition also includes material on forty-five additional officials. In his Introduction, Foneranalyzes and interprets the roles of the black American officeholders. Concise biographies, in alphabetical order, trace the life histories of these individuals - many previously unknown. This useful and informative volume also includes an index by state, by occupation, by office during Reconstruction, by birth status, and by topic.

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Forever Free : The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction

Eric Foner

This new examination of the years of Emancipation and Reconstruction during and immediately following the Civil War emphasizes the era's political and cultural meaning for today's America. Historian Foner overturns numerous assumptions growing out of the traditional understanding of the period, which is based almost exclusively on white sources and shaped by (often unconscious) racism. He presents the period as a time of determination, especially on the part of recently emancipated black Americans, to put into effect the principles ofequal rights and citizenship for all. He makes clear how, by war's end, freed slaves built on networks of church and family in order to exercise their right of suffrage as well as gain access to education, land, and employment, and shows that the birth of the Ku Klux Klan andrenewed acts of racial violence were retaliation for the progress made by blacks soon after the war.​

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The Glorious Failure ; Black Congressman Robert Brown Elliott and the Reconstruction in South Carolina

Peggy Lamson

A man of mystery -- All colors and conditions -- The great doctrine of manhood sufferage -- God save the state of South Carolina -- Their murderous work -- Republicanism first, foremost, and always -- In the Congress of the United States -- High crimes and misdemeanors -- The almighty dollar -- A natural gift for oratory -- Seeds of discord -- Black thursday -- To live and die in Dixie -- A giant step backward -- In the midst of his years -- Key political figures in South Carolina.

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Governor Chamberlain's Administration in South Carolina

Walter Allen

Massachusetts born Daniel Henry Chamberlain was actively involved in the tumultuous and dangerous South Carolina political scene from 1868 – 1877, serving as a delegate to the 1868 State Constitutional Convention, Attorney General under Republican Gov. Robert K. Scott from 1868 - 1872, and as South Carolina Governor 1874 – 1876. Matters of corruption, competency, and race were prominent throughout the period and Chamberlain tried to be moderate in tone and action. He ran for Governor against Wade Hampton III in 1876, a election that was noted for the violent and intimidating tactics used to suppress non-white voters. For a short period, both Chamberlain and Hampton claimed to have won and there were two houses of representatives claiming legitimacy as well. However once the Compromise of 1877 was reached and Rutherford B. Hayes declared President of the United States, Chamberlain conceded to Hampton and Chamberlain left South Carolina. ​

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A Hard Fight for We: Women's Transition from Slavery to Freedom in South Carolina

Leslie A. Schwalm

Focusing on slave women on the rice plantations of lowcountry South Carolina, Leslie Schwalm offers a thoroughly researched account of their vital roles in antebellum plantation life and in the wartime collapse of slavery, and their efforts as freedwomen to recover from the impact of war while redefining life and labor in the postbellum period.

 

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Harriet Tubman and the Combahee River Raid: A Selective List of Links & Materials

From the Library's special local history & archives department, the Beaufort District Collection

Lists and Links of Selected Local History Materials from the Beaufort District Collection (SC). This list of selective materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC). 

 

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Image: Combahee River Raid, Harper’s Weekly, 4 July 1863 (Beaufort District Collection Print #43)

Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction

Hans L. Trefousse

This reference book by well-known Reconstruction expert Trefousse will be of great use to scholars and general readers. Pithy, readable articles, spanning the years 1862-96, reflect current scholarship on the period and thus focus heavily on race relations, the freed slaves, and restoration of the states. There are entries on court cases, terms (blacks, labor, etc.), organziations, states, laws, miscellaneous events, and major individuals. . . . As the only reference work of its type, it should find widespread applicability in libraries of any size. (Library Journal)

 

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Hurrah for Hampton! Black Red Shirts in South Carolina during Reconstruction

Edmund L Drago

This Post-Revisionist Study examines the motives and the concerns of the ex-slaves in South Carolina who supported a movement that eventually led to white supremacy. Although most freedmen throughout the states of the former Confederacy were Republicans loyal to the party of the Federal government that had emancipated them, there were factions of African-American voters who aligned themselves with local white Democratic leaders. One such group of black conservatives joined the "Red Shirts," white paramilitary clubs that attempted to restore antebellum values in electing former Confederate general Wade Hampton governor of South Carolina in 1876. Drago's analysis recovers and explains this lost aspect of Southern black history. Drawing on primary sources that include testimonies of seven black Red Shirts before a Congressional investigation of the election and eleven slave narratives, he de-romanticizes the black experience by examining the relationship between black initiative and southern paternalism.

 

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In the Great Maelstrom: Conservatives in Post-Civil War South Carolina

Charles J. Holden

Examines how traditional thinkers both adjusted and clung to their beliefs long after the war; Few would question the assertion that South Carolina remained a conservative state long after the Civil War; one only needs to stroll over the grounds of the state capitol to be reminded of this long-running tradition in the state's history. But few have bothered to ask how, in the years following utter defeat during the Civil War, South Carolina remained a philosophically conservative state. How did self-proclaimed South Carolina conservatives maintain their beliefs in elite rule, the importance of a living tradition, and white supremacy through the loss of slavery, the rise of industry, populism, progressivism, and on through the New Deal? A study of South Carolina intellectual history from the end of the Civil War in 1865 to the 1945 advent of the Aromic Age, In the Great Maelstrom explores this ideology. The collapse of the Confederacy and the abolition of slavery forced South Carolina thinkers to ask what they could still believe in. In reconstructing their world views to fit the times, they employed the principles of white supremacy, the politics of elitism, and historicism.

 

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The Journal of Charlotte L. Forten

Forten, Charlotte L.

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The journal of Charlotte L. Forten; with an introduction and notes by Ray Allen Billington.

Main Author:Forten, Charlotte L.

Related Names:Billington, Ray Allen 1903-

Language(s):English

Published:New York, Dryden Press [c1953]

L.A. Hall Civil War and Reconstruction Eras Stereoscopic Images

Digital Collections from the Beaufort District Collection, Beaufort County Library hosted by the Lowcountry Digital Library

L.A. Hall, Beaufort's postmaster, gave the Beaufort Township Library a collection of 36 stereopticon views of Beaufort taken during the Federal occupation by E.W. Sinclair who worked for Samuel A. Cooley. According to the Beaufort Times June 21, 1944, "The pictures are most interesting, including those homes which were used as hospitals, the old Magnolia hotel, which is no more, and many of the homes which still exist." Later “"Cotton picking at the Yard - St. Helena Island Fall of 1879" and five stereopticon cards published by Rufus Morgan depict scenes near Columbia, SC and "Southern Scenery" near Asheville, NC.

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Land Records

Forten, Charlotte L.

Visit the Library's Beaufort District Collection to view these holdings:

 

  • Index to and Heads of Family Land Certificates, 1863-1872 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

  • Tax Sale Certificates 1864 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

  • Land Sale Certificates, 1869-1870; 1875-1876 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

  • Township Maps series covering most of Port Royal and St. Helena Islands produced for the South Carolina Tax Commissioners circa 1863. This series of maps include layers of information that sometimes indicates owners prior to hostilities, names and numbers connected with a tax sale certificate number, school farms, etc.

 

Photo source: Extract of Tax Commissioners Map, BDC Map 106

Laura Matilda Towne (1825-1901): A Selective List of Links & Materials

From the Library's special local history & archives department, the Beaufort District Collection

Lists and Links of Selected Local History Materials from the Beaufort District Collection (SC). This list of selective materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC). 

 

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Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne

Laura M. Towne

Letters from Port Royal Written at the Time of the Civil War

Pearson, Elizabeth Ware. ed.

Masters without slaves : southern planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction

James L. Roark

In 1865, the Confederacy passed into history, but its ideological cornerstone survived. War had ended slavery, but war had not ended Southern planters' attachment to it. This is a history of that moment when planters became masters without slaves.

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Missionary Teachers to the Freedmen

From the Library's special local history & archives department, the Beaufort District Collection

Lists and Links of Selected Local History Materials from the Beaufort District Collection (SC). This list of selective materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC). 

 

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Image: “Teachers” (Reed Collection, Beaufort County Library, SC)

Mitchelville: The First Freedman’s Village, A List of Materials & Links

From the Library's special local history & archives department, the Beaufort District Collection

Mitchelville, an historic site on Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina, is considered by many to be the first post-Civil War settlement for freed slaves with a government structure led by and administered by former slaves. The settlement was built under orders issued by Major General Ormsby Mitchel in 1862. It lasted almost twenty years as a separate town, disappearing in the 1880s. Mitchelville is an important Reconstruction Period historic site.

This list of links and materials was selected by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Manager of the Beaufort County Library’s (SC) special local history collection and archives unit, the Beaufort District Collection. Latest Revision: 14 December 2017

 

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The Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction

Alrutheus Ambush Taylor

Originally published by The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, Washington, D.C., 1924.

 

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New South Newspaper, 1862–1866

Digital Collections, University Libraries, University of South Carolina

The Ordeal of the Reunion: A New History of Reconstruction

Mark Wahlgren Summers

For a generation, scholarship on the Reconstruction era has rightly focused on the struggles of the recently enslaved for a meaningful freedom and defined its success or failure largely in those terms. Summers goes beyond this vitally important question, focusing on Reconstruction's need to form an enduring Union without sacrificing the framework of federalism and republican democracy. This book offers a fresh explanation for Reconstruction's demise and a case for its essential successes as well as its great failures. Indeed, this book demonstrates the extent to which the victors' aims in 1865 were met--and at what cost.​

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Ousting the carpetbagger from South Carolina

Henry T. Thompson

Old and new Columbia -- Semicentennial of Hampton's inauguration -- Centennial of Battle of Fort Moultrie, 1876 -- In the wake of war -- The president attempts reconstruction -- Congress undertakes reconstruction -- Establishing the carpetbag-negro government -- The "bond ring" -- Other notorious rings -- The state constabulary and the militia -- The Ku Klux -- "The robber governor" -- The rifle clubs: the taxpayers appeal to Grant -- The "reform" Rrepublic Governor -- The crowning infamy of the radical legislature -- Fusion with Chamberlain loses out -- Wade Hampton nominated for governor -- Campaign of 187: the Red Shirts -- Riots during the campaign: disbanding the rifle clubs -- Grant backs up Chamberlain -- Both sides claim the election -- United States soldiers in the state house -- The dual houses -- The dual governors -- Withdrawal of federal troops: collapse of carpetbag-negro government -- Appendix: Governors of South Carolina, 1868-1886 -- Chamberlain's political transformation -- Democratic members of the legislature, 1876.

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Penn School: A Selective List of Materials & Links

From the Library's special local history & archives department, the Beaufort District Collection

Lists and Links of Selected Local History Materials from the Beaufort District Collection (SC). This list of selective materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC). 

 

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Phosphate, Farms and Family: The Donner Collection

Digital Collections from the Beaufort District Collection, Beaufort County Library hosted by the Lowcountry Digital Library

Few images of phosphate mining operations in Beaufort County are known to exist. The 35 images that Conrad Donner took of the Pacific Guano Company, a phosphate mining company operating on Chisolm Island, are especially important as they show key aspects of an industry crucial to the post-Civil War economy of Beaufort. Activities on Hall's Island are well documented through images of farm life, often including photographs of African American laborers hard at work, and photographs of family hunting and fishing trips.

Images relating to African Americans and agricultural life

Images relating to Phosphate mines and mining in Beaufort County